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Emilio Ramos. Their capacity has increased greatly over the the card, make sure that last few years—you can now get Compact Flash cards with a capacity of 32 you reformat the card every time you reuse it; gigabytes Gb , for example. Open the Server app and do the following. The lid was left open, giving a black background. This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher other than as may be noted herein. Lenses from photographic enlargers often available cheaply secondhand nowadays , for example, can make excellent macro lenses, as can lenses from old cine cameras.

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X11 for mac el capitan download. Pictures are imported into user defined projects and albums or automatically created ones. Mac Soft Download. DigiCamControl by digicamcontrol. Even though digiCamControl for Mac is not available for download, there are other Mac apps you can use instead. This list contains some of the alternatives to digiCamControl for Mac. Remote Camera Control Sofortbild automatically recognizes your camera and shows camera model, lens name, focal length, focus mode, exposure value and battery status in a status bar.

Instant Image Review Images are instantly shown in a full featured, highly optimized image viewer for pixel and color accurate image review. Auto Image Import Sofortbild can automatically import captured images into Apple Aperture and iPhoto , optionally launching those application if they are not already running.

Automatically transfer all captured images instantly to you hard disk. Trigger image capture via release button on camera body or remotely from your Mac. Bracketing with an arbitrary number of shutter speeds and interval shooting. Import captured images automatically into Aperture and iPhoto. Image Transfer Customize file name format and save folder and optionally hide file extension.

Shooting bracketing series, all image files will get same index with incrementing suffix. Reset index counter to start count from one again. Image Viewer Image Viewer shows most recent captured image including file name and size and image type and dimensions.

Zoom image in and out, move it around, show it in its actual size and resize it again to fit into image viewer. Switch image viewer into fullscreen mode for high resolution review. Adjust background color to fit your working environment.

Disable image viewer while using auto import to gain maximum performance in photo library application. Image Inspector Choose between six different image histogram modes to review image quality. Browse through complete meta data contained in image file. Camera Status View camera model, lens name, focal length, focus mode and battery status in status bar.

Control exposure status from application while adjusting shutter speed and aperture. Camera Settings View and change shutter speed, aperture, exposure, white balance, iso, image format and size and matrix mode from application. Values changes on camera body are instantly updated in the application. There is an LCD panel that shows the exact amount of memory which is require by file and which is empty at that time. Free homeschool report card template.

It also helps you in capturing the PC screen with the complete adjustment in all factors involving it. One of the best features of Nikon Camera Control Pro software is the ability to manage and control settings remotely and wirelessly. With the Enhanced Viewer Smart feature, you can thumbnails the images transferred to the computer. The user can perform the changes on mode and exposure, customize the shutter speed, resolution, number of clicks and other settings that you are willing to apply can easily apply for it.

One most stellar feature of the application you can view the photo in real-time and after that decide it save in folder or not. The tilt movement can be used to increase depth of field within an image without stopping down the lens. The theory is based on the Scheimpflug Principle, which states that an image will have optimum sharpness when a plane through the lens panel, image sensor, and subject intersect at a common point.

The amount of tilt and shift is rather limited, to prevent vignetting of the image, so it may not be possible to bring all of a subject into sharp focus using swing and tilt movements alone—you may still need to stop down the aperture as well.

It is designed for use either with enlarging lenses, or lenses from medium- and large-format cameras. The amount of swing will Subject be limited to prevent vignetting of the image, so it may not always DOF be possible to bring the whole of a b Sensor plane subject into sharp focus. Also, it is not always easy to exactly decide on the main subject plane.

Having achieved the optimal position for the lens, the aperture can be used to further increase depth of field, and take into Subject Lens plane account other factors such as the height of a subject. This technique was popular 20 years ago, but seldom used today, though it is well worth experimenting with, as high magnifications can be obtained relatively easily, often with excellent results.

The usual technique is to mount a medium telephoto lens not a zoom, as their complex construction does not always give good quality in this case on the camera body e. A short extension tube can be improvised as a lens hood for the reversed lens.

By tilting the lens so that the planes through the subject, sensor, and lens coincide, the entire image was brought into sharp focus. This combination is rather heavy and cumbersome, probably lending itself more to the studio rather than field work. Depth of Field Achieving sufficient depth of field while maintaining high image quality is one of the greatest problems for a close-up photographer.

In general, in close-up and macro photography, depth of field is extremely small, fractions of a millimeter in some cases, and becomes increasingly smaller with increasing magnification.

There will be many subjects where it is not possible to obtain sufficient depth of field to render the whole subject sharp. It is always worth asking yourself whether you actually need such a high magnification, or whether a smaller magnification, with its correspondingly greater depth of field, is a better compromise.

Always make sure to focus on the most important part of a subject the eye of an insect, for example , and, if possible, align the main plane of the subject with the plane of the image sensor. This will ensure maximum possible depth of field, though may well lead to images that lack creativity. Consideration of depth of field and its effect on both image content and quality can become highly technical, with complex formulas for calculating it based on esoteric factors such as the size of the acceptable circle of confusion.

In the end, what really matters, of course, is the appearance of the final image, and you will need to do practical tests to see how your equipment performs for the sort of work you are doing.

Depth of field is dependent on the size of the sensor in the camera. A full- frame, 35 mm—size sensor will, for a given magnification, have a smaller depth of field than a smaller sensor.

A sensor with a 1. Definition Depth of field can be defined as the distance between the furthest and nearest points of a subject that are acceptably sharp. Camera: Nikon D, mm Micro-Nikkor. A good rule of thumb to maximize depth of field is to focus one-third into the subject. If the same subject is photographed with a 50 mm lens and then a mm lens, and the distance from the camera to the subject is altered so that the magnification of the subject is the same in each case, and the same aperture is used in each case, then the depth of field will be the same.

What will vary is the perspective of the image, and how much of the background behind the subject can be seen. What a longer focal-length lens will give is a greater working distance between the subject and the front of the lens, minimizing the risk of disturbance to a small insect, for example, or giving sufficient space to illuminate the subject with flash.

If the subject is flat, and parallel to the imaging surface, then all points reflected from the subject would be focused as points on the sensor. However, most of the subjects we photograph are not flat, and are at various angles relative to the imaging sensor.

Light reflected from those parts of the subject lying on either side of the main plane of focus will be rendered as disks of varying size, called circles of confusion CofC or blur circles.

The size of the circle that is considered sharp will depend on various factors such as viewing distance of the image and degree of enlargement. There is a general consensus that a circle of mm 0. A smaller sensor such as an APS-C size will need to be enlarged by a greater degree, and therefore the circle of confusion used to calculate DOF is smaller. The figure of 0. For example, a sensor with a crop factor of 1. Diffraction From the discussion so far it would seem reasonable that, in order to maximize depth of field, you should stop down the lens as far as possible, and if necessary, add more light to the subject, or give a longer shutter speed to allow a small aperture to be used.

There is a major problem with this argument, though—the lens resolution is limited by an optical concept known as diffraction. Most lenses suffer from various chromatic and spherical aberrations when used at full aperture. These aberrations are gradually reduced as the lens is stopped down. However, the effects of diffraction increase as the lens is stopped down, and there will come a point where the image quality begins to fall. Stopping down the lens to this region improves definition by eliminating off-axis rays of light and reducing lens aberrations such as chromatic and spherical aberration.

Beyond this, resolution may be affected by diffraction, which limits the resolution of a lens. Diffraction does not suddenly cut in—it appears gradually as the lens is stopped down, and different lenses will have their own optimum apertures. The physics of diffraction are complex, but simply, when light rays touch the edge of any opaque material, such as the blades of the iris diaphragm in a lens, they are bent due to the wave nature of light, and the light splits into separate colors as in a rainbow.

Violet rays are diffracted more than red. This is similar to water being passed through a hosepipe. Thus, there is a compromise between depth of field and resolution. Light rays pass straight through Small aperture Light rays are diffracted through small aperture sharpness and depth of field is optimized. It is worth doing tests with your lenses to see where the diffraction limit is, and how greatly the image is degraded at various apertures.

It may be that, in certain instances, resolution needs to be sacrificed at the expense of greater depth of field. A practical rule of thumb for minimizing the effect of diffraction is to keep the effective aperture EA you are using below the diffraction limit. This will vary according to the size of the image sensor in the camera. The f no. Although c gives greater depth of field, the whole image is soft, and lacks the crisp detail of b due to the effects of diffraction.

Camera: Nikon D, Micro-Nikkor mm. Beyond a certain point, however, the effects of diffraction start to degrade the image. The optimum aperture for performance for most lenses is two to three stops Image quality from its maximum. Image quality increases as lens Declining image aberrations are quality due to reduced diffraction 4 5.

To achieve a sharper result, it may be better to open the lens aperture by two stops, even though this will mean losing some valuable depth of field. Although these figures are approximations, and image quality will be dependent on other factors, they do serve to show that different sensor sizes will affect final image quality.

If the lens was stopped down any more, the image quality would suffer from diffraction. The type of subject will also have an effect on the final image quality; for example, a subject with lots of high-contrast detail may suffer more than one with smooth tones and little detail.

Several companies make depth-of-field calculators for field use, while others are available online where it is possible to select the sensor size, lens focal length, and focusing distance. They then give you an overall depth of field.

Some of these are not designed for macro photography at magnifications over life size. There is also a diffraction calculator with images showing the effects of diffraction. Details of these can be found in the Resources chapter. Figures in red indicate where the diffraction limit has been exceeded and where image quality may be degraded. TABLE 3. Crop factor is 1. Different lenses will have different characteristics with regard to their bokeh, often determined by the number of blades used in the lens diaphragm: The more blades used, the more circular the aperture and the smoother the result.

Although designed primarily for portraiture, it may well be worth trying for close-up and macro work, if used with appropriate extension tubes. Blurring a Background There will be occasions when a small aperture will be required to achieve the required depth of field for a subject, but which, in turn, creates a distracting background by bringing elements in the background into focus. Also, subjects will not always be in the best position and therefore the background will not be inappropriate—for example, a flower growing up against a fence.

The Gaussian blur filter in particular can be adjusted so that the amount of blurring can be tailored specifically to the image. Successful selection of the subject will depend on its characteristics: Does it have hard edges or fine hairs, for example?

Further discussion of the techniques is beyond the scope of this book, but good information can be found in many of the books listed in the Resources chapter. The background is rather distracting. Stacking Images to Increase Depth of Field The concept of combining several portions of images together to make one is not new, and has been used since the earliest days of photography when several negatives were printed onto the same sheet of paper.

Similar techniques can be used with good effect in close-up and macro photography. The most basic version of the technique is to shoot two or more images at slightly different focus points, and combine the sharpest sections of each using copying, pasting, and layering techniques in Adobe Photoshop.

In the example shown, two shots were taken in quick succession of this Banded Agrion damselfly, one focusing on the main body of the insect, the other refocusing on the plane of the wing. The camera was well supported on a tripod, and the insect, unusually, did not move between exposures.

A 5-pixel-radius feather was used to soften the edge of the selection. The selection was copied and then pasted Tip into the first image with the sharp body. This automatically creates a layer that A selection can be can be nudged into place using the Move tool.

I usually reduce the opacity nudged, one pixel at a of the top layer to about 50 percent so that I can see the underlying image time, using the arrow keys of the keyboard for through it. Having aligned it perfectly, I returned the layer to percent precise alignment. The technique has obvious limitations for moving subjects. Stacking Software A relatively new, more sophisticated technique for increasing depth of field within an image is to take a series of images at different focus points, and stack or blend them together automatically in an image-processing program.

The basic idea is to shoot a series of images of a subject at different focus points within the subject the precise number will depend on the size of the subject. This can be done either by moving the entire camera for each exposure, or refocusing the lens. The If you are using a large images are then loaded into the software package, which then analyzes number of high- the images and selects the sharpest sections of each one and blends them resolution images to together.

In most cases this works remarkably well, though occasionally some stack, your computer will retouching may be required of artifacts that have been formed during the need to have sufficient process.

If you have a focusing rail, use this to Ten full-resolution move the camera toward the subject by equal amounts, though it is not images from my Nikon strictly necessary. D camera use nearly Mb of RAM! The pasted image automatically becomes layered. Note this dialog box also has the facility to stitch together multi-image panoramas. Camera: Nikon D, mm Micro-Nikkor, 1 50 sec. The image was lit with the light from two fiber optic light guides. The camera was mounted on a sturdy focusing rail, allowing very precise focusing through the minute subject.

There are several forms of camera supports applicable to macro imaging, but the crucial characteristic of them all must be to hold the camera still at the moment of exposure, and enable precise movement of the camera when composing and focusing the image. Tripods For studio work it may be useful if a tripod has a central column that can be raised or lowered easily. For work in the field, particularly with subjects such as low-growing plants, a tripod that can hold the camera at ground level may be useful—the Benbo is a well-known brand, and very versatile in this respect.

All three legs of the tripod can be moved independently, and the center column tilted to any angle, allowing the tripod to be placed in virtually any position from ground level upwards. I was fortunate that they were perched on a leaf on the edge of a patch of vegetation, so I could slowly move a tripod into place, and align the camera as far as possible so that it was parallel with the main plane through them. Other models that have great versatility for close-up and macro work are the Gitzo Explorer and Manfrotto X ranges.

Although expensive, carbon fiber models are much lighter and equally, if not more, stable than their aluminum cousins. Also shown is the Wimberley Plamp, which has a flexible arm for holding reflectors in this case a folding Lastolite or supporting plants. Note also the right-angle finder attached to the camera viewfinder. Although not as stable as a tripod, monopods are certainly worth considering if you are intending to photograph insects in the field. Tripod Heads There are two main types of tripod head: the ball and socket, and pan and tilt.

My own preference for close-up and macro photography is for the ball and socket, as it doesn’t have any protruding arms that may get in the way, particularly when being carried in the field. It is worth investing in a large, solid ball-and-socket head, such as the Arca Swiss Monoball, to support the camera rigidly. A pan-and-tilt head enables precise positioning in one plane at a time and is perhaps better suited to studio work.

Quick-release plates that screw onto the camera and are slotted into the tripod head are a very convenient and quick way of mounting the camera onto a head. There are several systems in current use, but the two main ones are the Arca Swiss, using a rectangular plate, and the Manfrotto, which uses both hexagonal and rectangular plates. One useful accessory is an L bracket, which fits underneath the camera and allows you to rotate it from a horizontal to a vertical position around the lens axis, without changing the shooting position in any way.

They are manufactured for specific cameras by companies such as Kirk Enterprises, and slot into the Arca Swiss—style quick-release system.

Focusing Rail When shooting close-ups it is often easier to focus by moving the whole camera backwards and forwards rather than rotating the focus ring on the lens.

To help do this, focusing rails are available on to which the camera is mounted. These can then be used to make precise adjustments in the camera- to-subject distance.

Several models on the market, such as the Novoflex Castel-Cross, allow adjustment in two directions. Bean Bag This rather low-tech device may prove to be invaluable in some situations.

This Novoflex model has the ability to move the camera in two planes. The bag is laid onto a surface, perhaps the ground in the case of a plant, and the camera and lens pushed into the surface. They provide a remarkably firm support, though are obviously very limited in where they can be used. Wildlife photographers use them extensively when shooting with long lenses from vehicles on safaris, when they are draped over the window ledge.

When traveling on planes, they can be carried empty to save weight, and filled at your destination. Remote Release With any form of camera support, even the sturdiest tripod, it is possible to introduce movement into the system by heavy-handed firing of the shutter. This can be eliminated by the use of a cable release or other form of remote shutter release. All digital cameras will have a socket for an electronic remote release.

Despite being quite expensive, remote releases are a virtual necessity for getting the sharpest results. There is a range of models available, from simple on—off switches, to devices enabling time-lapse intervals to be programmed. Infrared and wireless radio remotes are also available for firing the camera at a distance. A sturdy camera support, remote release, and mirror lock-up facility were all used to ensure a sharp image.

Camera: Nikon D, 18— mm lens set to mm, 5 sec. I needed to align the camera so that the sensor was parallel to the main body of the insect. I swung the central column of the Benbo tripod over the top and focused on the body. Camera: Nikon D, mm Micro-Nikkor, 1 20 sec. In situations where you do not have a remote release it is possible to activate the shutter via the delayed-action control on the camera.

Even with a cable release there may be residual vibration caused by the mirror flipping up before the exposure is made. Several cameras have a mirror lock- up facility, whereby pressing the cable release once locks the mirror out of the light path.

Wait a few seconds for the vibration to die down before pressing it a second time to open the shutter. This is only useful if the subject is static, and not likely to move in between the mirror being raised and the shutter opening. There is no such thing as perfect or standard lighting for close-up and macro photography. Each subject will require something different, and different photographers will photograph the same subject using different lighting techniques to create different images.

There also will be instances where a standardized lighting setup is required— for example, for a series of comparative images of coins. It is highly likely that, in many cases, you will need to use a combination of lighting techniques, such as daylight with flash fill in, for example.

The basic choice is between natural light daylight and artificial lighting usually, but not always, electronic flash. Other small light sources that might be useful are small reading lamps, available from most furnishing and office supply stores, and focusable microscope lamps. One of the characteristics of daylight is that it is unpredictable and variable, which is fine for a one-shot photograph of a subject, but is not appropriate if a series of images is required with consistent lighting.

The seedpod was held in place with a Wimberley Plamp. The quality of light from a light source will be partly determined by the relative size of the light source and subject.

If the light is a reasonable distance away, such that it is effectively smaller than the subject, then it will act like a spotlight, creating shadows that will accentuate texture, but that may need to be softened.

When used closer to a subject, the light becomes softer as the size of the light source becomes larger than the specimen. These are available from microscope suppliers and are usually tungsten based, and give off a reasonable amount of heat. When using any form of artificial lighting, start by using one light to provide modeling and relief, as appropriate to the subject.

Place it above and to one side of the subject, usually to the left by convention. Try filling in shadows with white card or silver foil reflectors. If a second light source is required, it is imperative that you do not create a second shadow. Daylight Daylight varies in quantity, quality, and color, depending on weather conditions, time of day, or time of year. It is the preferred source for natural subjects such as flowers and insects, but because of its unpredictable nature, it may not always be appropriate.

Some subjects, such as delicate flowers, may require soft, even lighting to show detail in all areas of the image, while others, such as lichens, may require a harsher, more directional light to accentuate texture.

Backlighting will give a totally different effect with some subjects. There is more detail in the frontal light shot, but the backlit version shows the translucent petals. Neither is right or wrong! Camera: Nikon D, 70— mm lens set to mm. Traditionally, photographic gray cards—sheets of card manufactured with a perfectly neutral gray surface that reflect 18 percent of the light falling on them—were used by photographers to help when producing color prints.

Today, white balancing devices are available as plastic sheets or circular folding units. They can either be used to white balance the camera at the time of exposure, or included in the scene being photographed to enable correction in image-processing software. Make sure that the card receives the same light as the subject.

You might shoot two images of the same scene, one with and one without the card. Imaging software such as Adobe Photoshop has a white balance facility. Click the white balance dropper on the image of the gray card and that area is immediately balanced to a neutral gray.

Gray card and other white balance tools are available from the companies listed in the Resources chapter. I used the white balance dropper to click on the gray tool to neutralize the color. Camera: Nikon D, mm Micro- a Nikkor. Their main advantage is that they allow you to predict exactly how the final image will appear.

They generate a lot of heat though, making them unsuitable for delicate living subjects. They may require long shutter speeds, making them also inappropriate for moving subjects. Subject Brightness Range In general, digital cameras cannot record all the tones that the human eye can see. A typical bright sunny day might have a brightness range of well over eight stops, and the highlight may be several thousand times brighter than the shadow.

A typical digital camera is only able to record successfully a range of around five stops, meaning that detail might be lost in either the shadows, highlights, or both. Each device will have its own characteristics, and it is worth trying more than one to see which suits your particular subject.

Reflectors The main aim of a reflector is to reflect light into the shadow areas of a scene, brightening them, and thus reducing the overall contrast. Many reflective surfaces can be used to reflect light back into shadows, from white card and paper to silver foil and mirrors.

Each will have its own characteristics depending on the surface and size. Several manufacturers market a range of circular reflectors, many of which fold up into small pouches for carrying. Lastolite has an extensive range, including white, silver, and gold. For most close-up and macro photography you will only need the smallest one, 30 cm in diameter, which folds down to a pocket-size 10 cm.

The version with one white side and one silver side is probably the most useful. Small pieces of white card or silver or mirrored card are also well worth keeping in your camera bag. One good source is the silvered lids of Chinese food take-away containers.

Diffusers A diffuser is held between the light source and subject to soften the light, much like a cloud passing across the sun. Like reflectors, several diffusers are available commercially, either as circular fold-up types or umbrellas, but they also can be improvised from tracing paper or greenhouse muslin, for example. A white reflector was placed to the right, reflecting light back into the shadows, giving a much more pleasant effect. The result is black shadows with no detail. Silver will have a greater b effect than white.

It will have no effect if there is highlight on the top right of the specimen. It will tone down a bright highlight. You can do this simply by photographing an 18 percent gray card or equivalent with the light shining through the diffuser see White Balance box.

Flash Electronic flash offers the advantage of a small, powerful, consistent light source, that when used with modern digital cameras, can be used as the main light source or in conjunction with ambient daylight to provide fill in, just like a reflector. Photographers, such as Stephen Dalton, who photograph insects in flight, use specialized high-speed flash units with durations up to , second or less.

If you intend to do any of this type of work, it is worth checking the technical specification of your flash guns. Working indoors, flash can be used to provide all the lighting for a subject, but outdoors, flash can be used in a variety of ways in combination with daylight.

However you use flash, the general aim should be that it shouldn’t be apparent, and the result should look as natural as possible. Note the scale alongside the fossil.

By varying the flash output, its power relative to daylight can be altered, and a wide range of lighting effects achieved. Daylight as the Main Light and Flash as Fill In Imagine you are photographing a toadstool in reasonably harsh sunlight perhaps a subject brightness range SBR of : 1. Try experimenting with different compensation settings. Flash as the Main Light and Daylight as Fill In Imagine the same toadstool growing in a dense woodland, with heavy overcast lighting. Notice that the shadow is affected proportionately far more than the highlight.

This is one of the reasons why wedding photographers often use fill flash on bright sunny days—the contrast between the white dress of the bride and the black suit of the groom is far too much for the camera. Similar techniques are used by bird and animal photographers, for example, for brightening dark plumage or adding a catch light to an eye. You will need to use an extension cable to get the flash into the right position above and to one side of the subject, or perhaps from the side or back.

Use the aperture that is correct for the flash e. If the standard flash synchronization speed of second is used, the background will register as very dark or even black. In some instances this may be as low as 12 or 1 second or more. When the shutter is triggered, the flash goes off and exposes the toadstool correctly. The shutter now stays open for the longer time, effectively filling in the shadows created by the flash, and allowing the background to register.

Almost all situations in the field will be different, and it is well worth experimenting with different flash settings for a range of subjects to achieve the effect you are after. The discussion thus far deals with the principles of using flash with daylight. Modern, sophisticated flash units such as the Nikon SB take away much of the calculation and guesswork involved.

Camera: Nikon D with mm Micro-Nikkor lens. Wireless flash units such as the Nikon Creative Lighting System offer the option of complete flexibility with regard to the positioning and relative power of flash units without worrying about trailing cables. Ring Flash A ring flash is a circular flash tube that is mounted onto the front of the lens, and provides flat, shadowless lighting across the subject.

They were originally designed for medical work such as dental or surgical photography. Some units are available with two or more separate tubes that can be controlled independently, thus enabling the creation of shadows. When using a traditional ring flash try covering a portion of the tube usually the bottom left or right quadrant with black tape, which will create a shadow.

Specialist Macro Flash Units Several manufacturers, including Canon and Nikon, make devices that hold one or more flash units on the front of the lens. It consists of a ring that screws into the front of the lens that can hold up to eight small flash heads, which can be placed in any position around the ring and angled in the appropriate direction. This system is particularly flexible when switching from landscape to portrait mode. The ring is rotated so that the flash units are in the same relative position as the landscape format.

Separate flash heads can also be used to light the background or provide backlighting. Camera: Nikon D, 55 mm Micro-Nikkor, sec. The flat lighting here shows detail in all parts of the plant. Note the shadow all round the individual flowers. The power from each flash head can be controlled independently, enabling different lighting ratios.

Each flash head has a modeling light that enables precise positioning of the flash, though this is probably not very useful in strong daylight. Custom-Made Flash Brackets There will be occasions when photographing small subjects in the field where any form of camera support is impractical, and you will need to handhold the camera.

As discussed in Chapter 3, several macro lenses now have image-stabilizing facilities to help do this, but it is likely that you will need to use electronic flash, particularly for very small insects.

Many photographers construct their own brackets to hold one or more flashes when photographing subjects such as insects in the field. What is required is a flexible arm that is capable of holding a flash gun in a range of positions relative to the lens: above, to the side, or halfway between the two. You will need an extension cable to trigger the flash when it is used externally to the camera. The power of each flash unit can be adjusted to allow for a main light and fill-in light, for example.

The pop-up flash on the camera is used to control the two flash heads via an infrared signal. This particular setup becomes rather awkward when the camera is used in vertical format.

I handheld the camera, and used the flash bracket with a single flash above and to the left of the lens. This can be mounted as close as possible to the camera—there is no point in filling in shadows that the camera lens can’t see. Alternatively, a small reflector can be held on the other side of the flash to fill in the shadows.

A softer light can be obtained by firing the flash through a diffuser, either on the flash head, or with a diffuser mounted around the lens like a collar.

The whole point of this bracket is to provide a small portable unit for use in the field, so it must be easy to carry, lightweight, quick to set up, and easy to use. The design shown here is not very flexible for shooting portrait-format images Several manufacturers make flash brackets, such as Kirk, Really Right Stuff, Wimberley, Novoflex, and Manfrotto.

Fiber Optic Light Source Fiber optic light sources are available that offer highly controllable, small light sources. They generally consist of a quartz halogen light source inside a metal box, which is fed into one, two, or more flexible arms, usually around 1. One example is the Kaiser Macrospot Some units also have an electronic flash tube, making them excellent for freezing the movement of subjects such as pond life or small insects.

Their great advantage is that the light source emitted from the fiber optic arms is cold, and so it can be placed close to living subjects. The arms can even be immersed in water if appropriate. Although expensive, fiber optic sources are excellent for small subjects, and secondhand units often can be found on Internet auction sites such as eBay.

Be careful when using fiber optic light sources to not bend the arms excessively, as this can fracture the glass fibers. Light Box A small light box can be very useful in the macro studio for photographing transparent or translucent subjects such as leaves, fern fronds, and the like. Ideally, it should be daylight balanced, though images can be easily color balanced in software, particularly if you are shooting RAW files. Once you have framed the subject in the camera on the light box, mask off the rest of the light box area with black paper or card to minimize flare.

Tent Lighting Tent lighting is used for highly reflective subjects such as coins or other metallic subjects. The subject is effectively enveloped by a white translucent tent through which light is shone. Tent-style units are now sold for photographing small products for advertising items on Web sites such as eBay, but for many small subjects you will need smaller tents. White translucent plastic coffee cups with the bottoms removed, or white Perspex translucent lampshades are very useful available in most furniture or lighting stores , though you can also construct one from tracing paper.

Different backgrounds can be placed inside the tent. The lights are shone through the collar. Great care is needed to check for flare, particularly as there probably will be no room for a lens hood. Do be careful that the tent lighting does not eliminate completely the natural gloss from a surface. Materials such as stainless steel, silver, or flint have a natural surface sheen that needs to be indicated in the image.

If tent lighting is used for these subjects it may be possible to introduce this sheen by placing a piece of silver foil inside the tent. Similarly, if the subject has a surface texture, this needs to be retained. Try shining light through just one side of the tent to give some modeling to the texture.

Dark-Field Lighting This is a technique derived from microscopy for viewing transparent or translucent subjects. The subject appears to glow against a black background. Light is shone through the subject at an angle, such that if the subject were not present, no light would appear in the lens.

Any light deflected by the subject is seen through the camera. You will probably need to use at least two lights for this technique. It is worth taping strips of black card to the sides of the flash units to direct the light more accurately and reduce the risk of flare.

Two Nikon SB-R flash guns are mounted underneath the Petri dish containing the specimen, and angled such that they shine light through the specimen, but not directly into the lens. Black velvet is placed under the subject.


Nikon camera control pro 2.24 product key free download.Nikon Camera Control Pro 2.23.0 Serial Key Free Download

Important Information on the Product Key The product key may be found on the CD-ROM case. Do not lose this key. (1 GB or more recommended) of free disk space available on the system startup disk for installation and when Camera Control needed to run Camera Control Pro. Link to Nikon: Download Capture NX-D or Nikon NEF Codec or visit Nikon. Nikon Camera Control Pro Serial Key Free Download. This software enables remote control of the settings on most Nikon digital SLRs. Connection between the computer and camera may be via USB cable, or through wired or wireless LAN using a wireless transmitter. Advanced camera features are supported including LiveView, the Picture Control 5/5. Camera Control Pro 2 – Upgrade version (Digital download) Camera Control Pro 2 software enables remote control of the settings on most Nikon cameras. Connection between the computer and camera may be via USB cable, or through wired or wireless LAN using a wireless transmitter. Advanced camera features are supported including LiveView, Picture.


Nikon | Download center | Camera Control Pro camera control pro product key Archives – Get Windows Activator

Jan 01,  · Nikon Camera Control Pro Product Key is a professional software for to remotely managing and controlling the settings of Nikon SLR cameras. You can connect your Nikon digital Camera with a dedicated cable to your computer or access via wireless communication. Nikon’s SLR camera settings are customizable and managed by a computer remote. Nikon Camera Control Pro Serial Key Free Download. This software enables remote control of the settings on most Nikon digital SLRs. Connection between the computer and camera may be via USB cable, or through wired or wireless LAN using a wireless transmitter. Advanced camera features are supported including LiveView, the Picture Control 5/5. Mar 19, – Nikon Camera Control Pro Crack Product Key Full Free Download Nikon Camera Control Pro Crack Product Key Full Free Download.

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